Shanghaied (4 October 1915)


Released: 4 October 1915, Essanay

Director: Charlie Chaplin

Writer: Charlie Chaplin

Duration: approx. 28 mins.

With: Edna Purviance, Billy Armstrong, Carl Stockdale, Leo White, Wesley Ruggles, Paddy McGuire, Fred Goodwins, Bud Jamison

Story: The Tramp is all at sea as he is caught up in a plot to scuttle a ship, is then shanghaied, and pursues the ship owner’s daughter.

Production: One of Charlie Chaplin’s key ways of working in making his films was to settle first upon a setting for the action of each short, then the characters and comedy would follow from that. The idea of setting a comedy upon a boat was not exactly new, but Chaplin could see the many comic possibilities for his Tramp character that such a scenario suggested. He may not have been so happy to embark upon such an endeavour if he’d known the trouble he’d get into trying to make the film.

In Shanghaied the Tramp has found himself a girlfriend (Edna Purviance, inevitably), but her unscrupulous ship-owner father (Wesley Ruggles) disapproves of Charlie and sends him packing. Unusually, this film starts with the Tramp losing the girl, the moment where a handful of his most recent films have tended to end (as in The Bank). Edna’s father has also directed one of his crew to ‘shanghai’ some extra sailors: in 1915, the same year this short was made, this practice (essentially kidnapping people to serve as sailors, either by force or deception) was outlawed in the US, although the rise of steam-powered ships had reduced the need for it. News coverage of this may have inspired Chaplin in creating his film.

Chaplin goes for broke in these early scenes, playing his enforced separation from Edna as melodramatic tragedy in the style popular in movies at the time. When he’s hired to help grab some unsuspecting sailors to serve aboard the ship, Chaplin again maximises the comic potential of the scenario. While the ship’s mate entices would-be sailors with the offer of a drink, the Tramp pops out of hiding in a nearby barrel to bop each of them on the head with a mallet. Finally, that old standby prop of silent comedy, the mallet, is put to use in a way that actually justifies its inclusion! His mistake comes when he accidentally knocks out the Captain himself. The Tramp is paid off, but then falls foul of the same unethical recruitment technique himself when he’s knocked out and shanghaied for ship-board services.

Chaplin2015ShanghaeidPosterThe majority of the action on Shanghaied takes place aboard ship. Roused by his new crew, the Tramp is put to work under threat of physical violence. He tangles with a cabin boy, grapples with a cargo hook, and finally—now in a sloppy sailor uniform—serves soup from the galley kitchen. Each of these sequences consists of well thought through and developed comedy slapstick, with Chaplin pushing the boat out (ahem) to make sure he doesn’t miss a comedy trick.

More than before, editing is of prime importance in making Chaplin’s comedy work. Chaplin is beginning to master close-ups, previously used so well to get across the emotional moments in The Bank. There are more of these moments during Shanghaied, as well as some fast cutting in the ‘action’ scenes that help sell the mishap comedy of the situations the Tramp finds himself in when all at sea.

Motion Picture World (in the September 25, 1915 edition) reported upon some of the difficulties Chaplin and his crew faced filming onboard a real ship. The schooner Vaquero had been rented by Chaplin for use in the film, but no sooner had shooting started than the ship broke one of its drive shafts. The cast and crew were essentially stranded at sea, with the nearest craft able to rescue them over five miles away. Chaplin, Edna Purviance and the others faced a night stuck aboard ship, with no supplies including fresh water or any food—and a storm was rapidly approaching. Determined to solve the problem, Essanay producer Jesse Robbins commandeered a rowboat and took off, along with another crew member named Lou Trimbly, to get help. However, in circumstances that might have seemed like something straight out of a Chaplin comedy, their rowboat capsized. The unfunny bit involved the pair nearly drowning. According to the report, a wireless station in Venice Beach attempted to contact the ship, but the schooner had no wireless aboard. Instead, they eventually fell back upon the tried and trusted method for long distance communication: semaphore. The ship was soon in contact with the shore, with Chaplin (or someone on the boat who knew semaphore) supposedly sending back the message ‘Help! We’re starving and thirsty!’ Motion Picture World reports a happy ending to the whole escapade when those trapped on the Vaquero were rescued.

The making of Shanghaied certainly threw up some technical challenges. Shooting on the boat was fine for verisimilitude, but with the camera locked to the boat, when the boat rocked so did the camera. This meant the accepted exaggerated swaying to-and-fro that would be central to much of the comedy could not be achieved easily. The solution was developed by cameraman Harry Ensign. He developed a pivot connected to a heavy counterweight upon which the camera was mounted. This effectively simulated the rocking motion that filmgoers would expect to see, although the sea and horizon inevitably remained stable in relation to the boat.

Chaplin2015ShanghaeidBookletIn addition, Chaplin had an extra prop cabin built by his stagehands on rockers, so that it could physically swing back-and-forward, essential to recreating the inside of a storm-wracked ship, matching the onboard shots in the studio. He’d employ a similar technique in creating the tottering cabin in The Gold Rush (1925). Chaplin would also end his career with a film set aboard ship with A Countess from Hong Kong (1967), but in between he’d return to a setting at sea for much of The Immigrant (1917).

By the time Edna has stowed away on the boat (and her father sets off in hot pursuit in a motor boat), the Tramp—now in his new sailor suit guise—has been reassigned to work in the ship’s kitchen. The preparation of food was always a reliable source of gags for Chaplin, made doubly so by the difficulty of cooking at sea on a rocking ship (although these scenes were created in the studio on the innovative rocking set cabin). The Tramp decides the chef’s soup is ideal for washing up some dirty dishes in, no doubt simply adding to its unique flavour. Attempting to deliver a tray of food to the Captain, the Tramp is rocked from side to side of the boat, tumbling and falling head-over-heels, all the while not dropping the tray. This was an elaboration of a bit Chaplin had tried out in Dough and Dynamite (1914) and would finally perfect in his role as a troubled waiter in his masterpiece, Modern Times (1936). Even here, a little rougher around the edges, in Shanghaied it is a virtuoso moment.

Edna’s father, the ship’s owner, finally catches up with the boat just as the Tramp discovers the stowaway Edna hiding in the hold encased in an old sack. Together they dispose of the dynamite, saving the ship from being destroyed. After being dunked at sea, the Tramp climbs back aboard the small boat only to knock Edna’s father into the drink. Wesley Ruggles was a recent addition to the Chaplin stock company at Essanay (he’d first appeared in The Bank), but Shanghaied gave him a prominent role as Edna’s father (in ridiculous whiskers) who both disapproves of her relationship with Charlie and is planning on scuppering his own boat for the insurance. Ruggles, born in 1889 in Los Angeles, was a character actor who’d previously worked at Keystone but had somehow contrived to avoid appearing in any of Chaplin’s initial run of shorts in 1914. He’d go on to appear alongside Chaplin in A Night in Show, Carmen, and Police, and may have appeared in a couple of the later Mutual shorts (there are questions over the identification of the actor in Behind the Screen and The Pawnshop).

Ruggles became a director at Vitagraph, just before the final stages of the First World War (then known as ‘The Great War’) which saw him in service as an Army Signals Corp cameraman. He returned to directing, later making a success in ‘talking pictures’ such as the Western Cimarron (1930), the Clark Gable and Carole Lombard team-up No Man of Her Own (1932), the Mae West vehicle I’m No Angel (1933), and True Confessions (1937). His final role in film was as director of the British-made colour musical (the country’s first) London Town (1946), one of the biggest commercial failures in cinema up to that point. Ruggles was out of his depth, both in making a British subject and a musical (which he had no experience of; his being an American seemed to have been convincing enough to the film’s producers). Ruggles retired as a director, although he continued producing including on the TV documentary The Incredible World of James Bond (1965). He died in Santa Monica in 1972, aged 82.

Of Shanghaied, Peter Ackroyd wrote: ‘The film is notable for the display of Charlie’s graceful acrobatics in the face of overwhelming difficulties. He dances a hornpipe on a wildly swaying deck, and even manages a complete somersault while carrying a tray of plates. His Karno training was still invaluable.’ Equally, Simon Louvish noted: ‘The main virtue of the film is a series of ludicrous scenes of cooking, eating and getting along in high winds, as the ship yaws madly from side to side.’

The acrobatic artistry of Charlie Chaplin would only increase from here…

Trivia: Ever the businessman, Chaplin and his half-brother Sydney negotiated new terms of trade with the exhibitors for the Chaplin shorts released through Essanay. As Chaplin wrote in his memoir My Autobiography: ‘It did not seem fair that exhibitors would make all the money. Even though Essanay were selling hundreds of copies of my films they were selling them along old-fashioned lines of distribution. Sydney suggested scaling the larger theatres according to their seating capacity. With this plan each film could increase the receipts to a hundred thousand dollars or more. … Later, the Motion Picture Herald announced that the Essanay Company had discarded its old method of selling and, as Sydney suggested, was scaling its terms according to the seating capacity of a theatre…’

The Contemporary View: ‘This picture is actually funny in the sense that it would cause anyone to laugh without offending. That’s odd for a Chaplin, and through it Shanghaied is doubly amusing.’—Variety, 1915

Slapstick: A recalcitrant garden gate comes between the Tramp and Edna. Handy with a mallet, the Tramp soon bags three unwilling shipmates, then for good measure tries his technique on the Captain. He’s then bopped on the head himself and added to the total. Put to work, the Tramp finds the deck a little slippy and those barrels hard to keep a hold of. Helping with a cargo hook, the Tramp flattens the Captain under some fully-packed sacks, before hoisting him aloft on the same hook. His hand signalling leads to the dunking of a couple of sailors overboard. Many more follow, while the Tramp himself somehow contrives to stay aboard ship… Washing up below decks proves to be something of a smashing time. Souper! A hambone hornpipe allows Chaplin to show off his balletic moves, after a kerfuffle with the chef. A tumble with a tray leads to better balancing as the Tramp takes a terrible tumble (or two) himself. Look out for that sack: it’s got Edna inside! What’s good enough for the goose—soon the Tramp’s given himself the sack. Edna and the Tramp dispose of the dynamite overboard, blowing the Captain up with his own explosives.

Verdict: The swaying camera might make you seasick, but the trick with the tray makes it all worthwhile, 3/5

Next: A Night in Show (15 November 1915)

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The Bank (9 August 1915)


Released: 9 August 1915, Essanay

Director: Charlie Chaplin

Writer: Charlie Chaplin

Duration: approx. 25 mins.

With: Charles Inslee, Carl Stockdale, Edna Purviance, Leo White, Fred Goodwins, Billy Armstrong, Lloyd Bacon

Story: Bank janitor Charlie gets involved in a romantic entanglement, then day-dreams he heroically sees off a group of would-be bank robbers.

Production: Having produced two films—Work in June and A Woman in July—after a long break, Charlie Chaplin appeared to be settling into a regular release schedule, issuing a new short on a monthly basis. This would be maintained with The Bank in August 1915, but just as his work was reaching new heights with this short, Chaplin was about to take another lengthy hiatus. There’d be no new shorts released until Shanghaied in early October.

Chaplin had shown the capacity within his Tramp character (a figure he was coming more and more to regard as the ‘Little Fellow’ or an everyman archetype) for unexpected pathos in his short The Tramp, released back in April. His subsequent short Work had seen him develop serious themes within his storytelling, while the following film A Woman had allowed Chaplin to have some fun exploring his feminine side. None had really adequately built on the expansion of the character seen in The Tramp, although it had been an issue Chaplin had been wrestling with in between moving studios, twice. Now, with The Bank he had a thematically serious storyline that also allowed for him to bring new depths to the ever-evolving character of the Tramp.

As usual, Chaplin’s Tramp has found a lowly form of no doubt temporary employment as the lowly caretaker at a large bank. He’s fallen in love with the boss’s secretary (Edna Purviance), although she has barely noticed him, due to a mis-reading of a note she intends for the cashier. The only way he seems able to both catch her attention and act out a heroic adventure is in his idle day dreams, echoing ‘Jimmy the Fearless’, a well-travelled vaudeville stage comedy Chaplin had played in a few years earlier, mixed with echoes of his old Keystone short, The New Janitor.

The opening sequence is an example of masterful comic misdirection. The indications are that the Tramp has made something of himself at last as he enters a big city bank building, almost but not quite as if he owns the place. He confidently makes his way down into the vaults where he is confronted by a massive safe. Surely only someone of great importantance would know the combination to such as safe, as Charlie seems to. As he opens the door he pulls out… a bucket, a mop, and his janitor’s uniform. Knowing a good joke when he saw one, Chaplin re-used the safe gag a year later in The Pawnshop (1916), this time retrieving his lunch.

There follows a singular scene in The Bank that demonstrates how Chaplin was now thinking about his developing character. As Edna’s secretary carelessly and unthinkingly tosses away the flowers he has specifically left for her, Chaplin the director affords the Tramp a close shot which shows a series of emotions crossing his expressive face. In that one shot the Tramp appears confused by her actions, even disbelieving, before he is overtaken by an involuntary expression akin to grief. Chaplin biographer Peter Ackroyd called this one shot ‘…one of the most memorable moments of [Chaplin’s] career. His is a bleak and frightened face, wide-eyed and distraught. It is the moment when he imagines what it is to be betrayed by a woman whom he adores.’ Ackroyd goes on (in a form of cod philosophy I tend to resist) to source this emotional expression of female betrayal deep in Chaplin’s childhood and effectively sources it as his expression of disappointment in his own troubled mother, Hannah. In contrast, writer John McCabe saw in this moment in The Bank the birth of a word that would define the work that was to come: ‘[In The Bank] the situation is poignant and it is funny; it is, to use a word that now means both of those things together, Chaplinesque.’

Flowers as a motif would become central to the pathos Chaplin would henceforth build into his comedy. We’ve already seen the Tramp associating a flower with romance at the start of A Jitney Elopement, while in The Tramp he is intending to give Edna a flower as a token of his love, but is too shy and instead throws it away (into a milk bucket). The Bank is the first time, though, that flowers are seen to be used in this way in an extended sequence, recurring twice through the film. Later films continued the motif. In Sunnyside (1919) as the Tramp spies on Edna he absentmindedly pulls the petals from a daisy, and in the dream world featured in The Kid (1921), flowers abound. According to critic Gerald Mast, for Chaplin ‘flowers become surrogates for the real human beauty [the Tramp] wants to possess, he can at least hold a flower, if not the lady for whom it is intended.’ The pinnacle of this use of flowers in dramatic gestures would come in City Lights (1931), in which the object of his affection is a blind flower seller (Virginia Cherrill). He buys flowers from her at the start of the film and again at the climax, when it is revealed through this act that he has been her benefactor. Images of flowers recur throughout City Lights—such as during the scenes where he rescues the would-be suicide by the quayside—and provide the central metaphor for femininity as perceived by Chaplin. In these earlier films we see the first sketches for ideas he would more fully develop later in his features, including The Gold Rush (1925) in which prospector Charlie keeps Georgia Hale’s rose under his pillow and even Monsieur Verdoux (1947), where the romantic assassin sends flowers to his prospective victims.

Charlie awakens from his dream of success to discover he’s caressing his mop rather than Edna, as he’s imagined. As he bins the rejected flowers with a swift kick of his heel, the Tramp pulls himself back together and wanders off as the camera irises in. According to Chaplin’s pre-eminent biographer David Robinson: ‘It was from this time that the serious critics and audiences began to discover what the common public had long ago recognised, that Chaplin was not like anyone else before him.’

In a more high-faluting comparison, writer Robert Payne in his book The Great Charlie in 1952 compared the Tramp’s ‘deadpan’ face to ‘the Great God Pan … the divine prince of knaves and liars … the high and presiding genius of sensuality who is also the mocker of sensuality … the eternal wanderer on the high cliffs of the mind … the spirit of licence in a trammelled world.’ That was quite a litany for one ‘mere’ comedian to live up to, but as Simon Louvish points out, Chaplin’s use of the close up to convey inner emotion was simply Chaplin building upon the cinematic innovations of others, contributing his own input to the developing art of cinema. ‘By using the straight-forward close-up to convey his inner thoughts Chaplin was not reinventing the wheel,’ wrote Louvish in Chaplin: The Tramp’s Odyssey. ‘[But he was] utilizing a dramatic trope that was unusual in comedy.’ Earlier that year in February 1915, cinematic innovator D. W. Griffith’s film The Birth of a Nation had been released, revealing alike to audiences and filmmakers such as Chaplin new techniques in editing, cross-cutting, the direction of actors and the use of close-ups. As Louvish notes: ‘Everyone was learning from Griffith, but no-one more than Chaplin understood the potential power of the apparently unmoving close-up.’

Once again, The Bank was shot in and around some key locations in Los Angeles. The building that houses the bank itself was the Trinity Auditorium, located at 851 South Grand Street in Downtown Los Angeles, as revealed by author John Bengtson in his book Silent Traces. It was an unusual building, with the first three stories housing not a bank but a church, while the upper six stories featured men’s dormitories consisting of 330 rooms. Essentially a site for self-improvement run by the church, the building included a rooftop garden and any manner of facilities from a barber shop to a library. It opened just a year before Chaplin used it as the site of his bank, and it was often used in the 1930s as a venue for jazz concerts. More recently, it has been converted into a high end hotel. The interiors for The Bank were shot on sets constructed at Chaplin’s rented facility at the Majestic Studio, although as was often the convention in silent film many of these supposedly ‘interior’ sets were actually built on open air stages to make better use of the Los Angeles light.

While he was developing more depth for his own character, Chaplin wasn’t sacrificing the comedy in his shorts to do so. As well as the opening gag, there’s a classic moment when asked to post a letter, Chaplin’s Tramp assess a bank customer as though he is ill, enticing him to stick out his tongue, so allowing the Tramp to wet the stamp he needs to stick on the letter. The same letter won’t fit in the mail slot, so the Tramp’s innovative solution is simply to tear it into three pieces and post each one individually. Of course, as he’s a janitor with a mop, there is plenty of opportunity to use that as a comic prop.

Even before the dream sequence in which the Tramp thwarts the would-be bank robbers, the audience’s sympathy is firmly with him. This version of Chaplin’s Tramp is not the violent imp from the earliest Keystone films. He’s a prankster, but he means no real harm to anyone, and is in fact keen to improve his lot. Naturally, he’d like to do this without actually engaging in any real hard work—and that probably appealed to a lot of his contemporary 1915 audience. More and more, though, as Chaplin developed his cinematic art during his time with Essanay, the Tramp is focused on romance, matters of the heart and eternal heartbreak as his romantic yearnings are very rarely fulfilled.

It is significant, given the character development in this short, that for the first time the image of Chaplin used in posters to promote The Bank was not one that suggested simple comedy. The head-and-shoulders image of the Tramp is one that contains emotion, although whether sorrow or anger is not instantly clear (alternatively, he could just be getting ready to sneeze!). It was an indication that for this particular short, and more widely indeed, that Charlie Chaplin was no longer just about the laughs. He was now promising stronger comedy rooted in distinctive character.

The original release of The Bank was delayed by a week, giving rise to speculation that Chaplin had either produced a stinker of a movie, or one that was too vulgar (in line with recent criticisms made of his work) to release. Instead, The Bank proved to be the first film to show Chaplin’s new direction, as explained by actor Fred Goodwins in a letter to Britain’s Pictures and the Picturegoer magazine that was published at the time: ‘Charlie’s new line of work [is] the dramatic-comedy … so much adverse criticism has cropped up among the public of the USA (which is inclined to be very Puritanical) about some of the “naughty” little incidents in certain of Charlie’s comedies, that he has decided to turn his attention to a much more legitimate line of work—dramatic stories in which he, in comedy vein, pulls off all the rescues, the traps, the thieves, and so on…’

In The Bank, the optimistic dreamer of Chaplin’s more mature work made his first tentative appearance, providing a pointer to the future of the ‘Little Fellow’.

Trivia: Playing both the bald cashier and the robber wearing the derby hat, actor Fred Goodwins recalled working with Chaplin on the robbery dream sequence. ‘We had a scene in the vault,’ he told Pearson’s Weekly, ‘a burglary, with a creeping, noiseless entrance. All the time Chaplin sat beside the cameraman, whispering, almost inaudibly, “Hush. Gently boys: they’ll hear us upstairs!” It is infectious, it gets into the actors’ systems, and so “gets over” on the screen.’

The Contemporary View: ‘It’s the most legitimate comedy film Chaplin has played in many a long day, perhaps since he’s been in pictures. While there were no boisterous guffaws from upstairs [the balcony] that his slapstick would have pulled, the use of clearer material brought some enjoyment to the entire house, also left a better impression.’—Variety, 1915.

Slapstick: The first of many mop-tastic ‘accidents’ sees the janitor dip his wet mop into a gentleman’s top hat. In moving the waste paper basket, the janitor turns litterbug, making more mess than he’d cleaned up. Smartly dressed Edna provides such a distraction that the janitor hits himself in the face with his mop. The foot-in-a-bucket gag may seem old now but… yeah, it was old even then. Romantic disappointment leads to day-dreaming, and an action-packed robbery thwarted. While Edna’s boyfriend makes himself scarce, Charlie’s janitor saves the day—shame it’s all just a dream.

Verdict: Anticipating the more sophisticated Mutual shorts of 1916, The Bank shows Chaplin’s evolution as an artist, 3/5

Next: Shanghaied (4 October 1915)

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An 80,000 word ebook chronicle of Chaplin’s early films from Keystone (1914) and Essanay (1915), based on the blog postings at Chaplin: Film by Film with 20,000 words of supplemental biographical essays.

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A Woman (12 July 1915)


Released: 12 July 1915, Essanay

Director: Charlie Chaplin

Writer: Charlie Chaplin

Duration: approx. 26 mins.

With: Charles Insley, Marta Golden, Edna Purviance, Billy Armstrong, Leo White, Margie Reiger

Story: The Tramp meets Edna and her parents in a park and later (for reasons too complicated to summarise) has to dress as a woman to fool her father!

Production: A Woman—the last of a trio of Charlie Chaplin comedies in which he cross-dresses—was clearly the most successful. His previous comedic turns in a dress included both A Busy Day and The Masquerader, but it is only in this film that he seriously attempts to convince the viewer as a bonafide female impersonator.

According to critic Walter Kerr, one of Chaplin’s key attributes was that of impersonation: ‘The secret of Chaplin as a character is that he can be anyone. … the man who can with the flick of a finger or the blink of an eyelash, instantly transform himself into absolutely anyone is a man who, in his heart, must remain no one. Infinitely adaptable, Chaplin now has no one identity to embrace. [He has] no limitations.’

Perhaps his turns in both A Busy Day and The Masquerader had shown Chaplin he did have some limitations in at least one department. Admittedly, in A Busy Day he was barely trying to convince anyone he was really a female character: it was just Charlie/the Tramp in a dress, essentially. It was slightly different with the set-up of The Masquerader, where the Tramp does set out to convince the motion picture director he is actually a completely different person, to mixed effect. It is only in A Woman, however, that Chaplin final goes all out to try and actually play a female character in order to genuinely fool someone else.

Chaplin2015AWoman1Taking on the role for Chaplin was—according to biographer David Robinson—a ‘tempting exercise. Female attire suited him disturbingly well. The role gave [him] scope for a whole new range of character mime. … The female impersonation is remarkable.’ Indeed, female impersonation, long a staple of theatrical types, had been given a new sense of acceptability by Julian Eltinge. Born in 1881, Eltinge had been performing female roles on the stage from the age of 10. He would later appear in films finding success from 1917, when he starred in The Countess Charming, and then co-starred with Rudolph Valentino and Virginia Rappe (of the 1921 Fatty Arbuckle scandal infamy) in 1918’s The Isle of Love, which also featured Chaplin co-star Leo White. The Great Depression and the end of vaudeville (where he performed as a woman, only revealing at the end of his turn that he was, in fact, male) put paid to Eltinge’s career and he died in 1941 aged just 59. Despite the growing acceptance of female impersonations (something Laurel and Hardy would make a great play of in their later films), such was the concern in 1915 about Chaplin’s taboo busting in A Woman, the film was banned in Scandinavia until the 1930s. In Britain, the country’s censor the BBFC initially rejected the film for release when first submitted for approval in March 1915. Shortly thereafter, the British censor relented and A Woman was approved for British distribution under the title Charlie, the Perfect Lady.

Variety founding editor Sime Silverman wrote of Chaplin’s material that ‘the Censor Board is passing matter in the Chaplin films that could not possibly get by in other pictures.’ Across America at this time, individual films were subject to the censorship of local censorship boards or other civic ‘worthies’ who set themselves up as such. The Chicago Tribune complained that Chaplin’s new film was simply his ‘latest and most deplorable break into the realm of suggestive slapstick’. Local Chicago censor Major Metillus L. C. Funkhouser (yes, really) of the Chicago police was responsible for the cutting of various elements from A Woman, including (according to a list published contemporaneously in the Chicago Tribune): ‘Woman kicking man; Woman picking man’s pocket in park; All scenes of man minus trousers; All scenes of man in bedroom showing him dressing up as a woman; All scenes showing extraction of hatpin from man’s anatomy; Man pulling skirt off woman and subsequent vulgar sections; Picture with father giving couple blessings.’ All of which is pretty funny stuff looked at from today’s perspective, especially when it is considered that Major Funkhouser’s apparent hobby was to host private screenings of all the material censored from films cut for public consumption. Aware of his private predilections, a critic for the Tribune is said to have stated: ‘Major Funkhouser should be soundly spanked and sat in a corner until he behaves.’

Contemporary critic Fred Goodwins wrote of the attacks on Chaplin provoked by both his drag turn in A Woman and his gag with the naked statue in his previous short, Work: ‘His fame was at its zenith here in America when suddenly the critics made a dead set at him. … They roasted his work wholesale, called it crude, ungentlemanly, risqué, and even indecent.’ These attacks supposedly caused Chaplin to shift gears and, with his next film, The Bank, produce something he called ‘clean, clever, dramatic … with a big laugh at the end.’ The response suggests that Chaplin was sensitive to and responsive to criticism. It was, however, inevitable given the incredible Chaplin-mania of the first few months of 1915 that there would be an (albeit short-lived) critical backlash against the Tramp and his creator.

A Woman was the first film Chaplin made from his new Essanay base in LA, the Majestic Studios located at 651 Fairview Avenue in Boyle Heights, then regarded as a ‘Jewish neighbourhood’ in Los Angeles (the area was the original location of the famous Cantor’s Deli). This meant Chaplin relocating a few miles East of the Bradbury Mansion where he’d shot Work. Most of A Woman, though, was actually filmed in and around Eastlake Park (known as Lincoln Park after 1917), befitting this variation on the old Keystone park comedy. Eastlake Park had previously been home to William Selig’s zoo and Selig Polyscope Company movie studio from 1911.

Chaplin2015AWoman2Chaplin’s cross-dressing in A Woman is in service of a proto-feminist message. The film opens with the Tramp coming to the aid of a woman in a local park who is being disturbed by a pair of lechers. Despite this, the Tramp himself goes on to pick up a different woman (Edna Purviance), who introduces him to her mother and invites him home to dinner. When Edna’s father and his friend arrive home, the Tramp realises that they are the lechers from the park whom he had tackled earlier. He escapes them, and while upstairs at the house makes himself over: gone is the moustache, and with the help of some of Edna’s accoutrements, the Tramp reappears, this time as a woman. It is his way of testing Edna’s father, of revealing the man’s true nature to his daughter and his wife. In the words of Chaplin biographer Kenneth S. Lynn, ‘His lovely, pincushion-enhanced embonpoint and fluttery gestures drive the lechers wild.’

Despite this potential social and political angle, A Woman is something of a slight step backwards following the progress made in the previous two shorts, The Tramp and Work. The first half is essentially a glorified ‘park’ comedy of the type we’re overly familiar with from the Keystone days, and which by now Chaplin was way beyond in terms of character and cinematic technique, at least in potential if not actual deliverance. If it had not been for the convincing female impersonation in the second half, it is doubtful that A Woman would be regarded as particularly notable at all.

In terms of cinematic technique, Chaplin developed the use of the close-up in A Woman, something he’d sparingly but notably dabbled with before. Ironically, the significant close-up here is reserved not for Chaplin in his Tramp guise, but when he has discarded his male persona and adopted female clothing. It as if he was challenging his viewers to look at him afresh, without his distinctive and trademark moustache, but yet not as himself as he appeared off-screen (when he was largely unrecognisable to most as the ‘Charlie Chaplin’ from the films). The point being, perhaps, that there was more to this little fellow than a knockabout clown, as he would go on to prove in his future filmmaking endeavours.

Trivia: Upon moving into the Majestic Studios, which was to be his new LA base, Chaplin had all the locks changed and a new security system installed, so paranoid was he about his competitors stealing his ‘secrets’. Biographer Peter Ackroyd even claims that Essanay went so far as to build an embankment around the studio to deter curious interlopers.

The Contemporary View: ‘Chaplin needs a scenario writer, and if he doesn’t Essanay does. In comedy pictures as much fun may be secured through a situation, with the humour starting at the suggestion of that situation, as by the actual comedy work involved in it. This is what is missing in the Essanay Chaplin film, the situation. Chaplin needs a scenario writer very, very badly. Too much money could not be paid the man who could fit Charlie Chaplin in his present brand of comedy as he should be fitted.’—Sime Silverman, Variety, reviewing A Woman.

Slapstick: Apart from the usual knockabout stuff in the park (with the usual suspects taking an involuntary dip in the lake), it is in the domestic setting that Chaplin rolls out a few new(ish) routines. His table manners are somewhat lacking for ‘society’ as he gargles his tea and uses a long knife to retrieve donuts (which slide down the shaft and off the handle onto the plates). Meeting Edna’s father once again results in an altercation and a strangulation, before the Tramp loses his trousers and has his long johns soaked thanks to Edna’s ticklish trigger finger on a soda syphon. Trying to escape to the outside, the Tramp’s trouser-less appearance puts the wind up a group of old women, resulting in him returning to the house. Hiding upstairs, a mannequin gives him the idea of adopting an unusual disguise, but first the mannequin has to be undressed with the upmost respect for its modesty. A pin cushion is pressed into service as a makeshift bosom, but the moustache is almost disturbingly forgotten until it is pointed out by Edna, who doesn’t seem to mind having a transvestite boyfriend (ahead of her time was Edna). The cheeky close-up (and glance to camera) confirms the Tramp’s new identity and challenges the viewer to raise an objection. Introduced as Edna’s ‘college chum’, the new Tramp has a knockout effect on her father and his friend (who is distracted from seemingly romancing Edna’s mother). A final fracas sees friend and Tramp forcibly ejected from the once happy home.

Verdict: Yes, Chaplin makes for a convincing woman, but that’s all there is to this slight outing, 2/5

Next: The Bank (9 August 1915)

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Work (21 June 1915)


Released: 21 June 1915, Essanay

Director: Charlie Chaplin

Writer: Charlie Chaplin

Duration: approx. 28 mins.

With: Charles Insley, Edna Purviance, Billy Armstrong, Marta Golden, Leo White

Story: The Tramp is gainfully employed as a decorator… unfortunately, decorating is not part of his limited skill set…

Production: Charlie Chaplin took his time to produce Work, his eighth short for Essanay. Since the beginning of 1915, when he’d joined the studio, Chaplin had been slowly asserting his artistic independence, first in moving back to California from Chicago and now in moving from Niles back to Los Angeles. The relocation to the studio housed in the Bradbury Mansion at 147 North Hill Street partly explains the gap between the release of the ‘quickie’ By The Sea on 29 April and Work on 21 June, but the larger part of the reason is that Chaplin simply took his time in developing his newest comedy short. This would increasingly become his approach to his work: developing, rehearsing and re-working material until he felt it was as funny as it could possibly be.

The Bradbury Mansion was not only the temporary creative base for Chaplin: the house also provided the exteriors for the home featured in the short, making it a historic record of an area now completely demolished. The magnificent turreted mansion was designed by Samuel and Joseph Carter Newsom, and built in 1886 at a cost of $80,000, complete with 35 rooms, five chimneys, and five turrets. The views of the city from the top of the uppermost turret were said to be spectacular. The following year the house was purchased by Lewis Leonard Bradbury for $125,000. Bradbury was a mining magnate with interests in Mexico which made him immensely wealthy. Various movie studios occupied the house from 1913 onwards, including J.A.C. Film Manufacturing Company, Hal Roach—who made the early Harold Lloyd shorts there—and others. Lloyd dubbed the building ‘pneumonia hall’ as it was impossible to heat and suffered from constant drafts. After Chaplin used it, the house became a restaurant for Supreme Court Judges and a rooming house for artists before finally being demolished in 1929 as the entire area was significantly redeveloped.

For Chaplin biographer David Robinson, in its ‘circumscribed form and ambitions’, Work was as original as D. W. Griffith’s Birth of a Nation (which Chaplin had obsessively re-watched) released four months earlier in 1915. Of course, in this tale of destructive decorators Chaplin was drawing upon his well-mined vaudeville heritage. He and half-brother Sydney had appeared in Wal Pink’s famous ‘Repairs’ sketch in 1906, as well as a Karno variation called ‘Spring Cleaning’, so he knew the source material well. In this filmed version, the Tramp and his boss are charged with the make-over of a respectable middle class home, offering many opportunities for slapstick havoc. Chaplin complicates this basic situation by including a hen-pecked husband, a wild wife, her clandestine lover and a semi-detached maid (played by Edna Purviance), who all variously get in the way.

Work builds upon the character development Chaplin had achieved in The Tramp. Here he’s not a vagabond as such, but gainfully employed, even if he wants to actually work as little as possible (and that’s where much of the comedy comes from). In his first appearance, Chaplin is shown pulling a cart which is not only laden down with decorating equipment, but also carries his boss, the decorator. Anticipating Soviet propaganda cinema, this image immediately encapsulates the relationship between capital (the boss) and labour (the Tramp). Forced to drag his boss (and his friend, who clambers aboard), the Tramp endures the Sisyphean task of getting the cart up a steep incline (in reality achieved rather cleverly by simply tipping the camera on its side).

Writing about this opening sequence, Chaplin biographer David Robinson noted: ‘Chaplin’s aims in inventing the sequence were no doubt uncomplicated enough: it is funny, and it prepares the audience to accept as his proper deserts the ill-treatment that the boss will later receive at Charlie’s hands. Yet, almost incidentally to his purposes, he has created a masterly and unforgettable image of the exploitation and humiliation of labour, the reverse of the Victorian ideal of salutary virtues of work.’

The mistrust between workers and their employers is reinforced by the ‘My silver!’ sequence, shortly after their arrival at the house, in which the lady of the house hides her valuables in a safe so the untrustworthy proletariat can’t get at them. The workers respond in kind by pooling their valuables—wallets, watches—and pining them in the Tramp’s voluminous pockets for safe-keeping.

Many of Chaplin’s later roles would see his character in some form of employment, rather than travelling the rails. In upcoming films he’s a policeman (of all things), a fireman, a waiter and (eventually) in The Kid (1921), a glazier (albeit a crooked one). The main thing is that the character constantly moves on from job to job, never settling on one ‘profession’ or way of earning a pittance. Here he’s an assistant decorator who can’t manage the basics of hanging wallpaper.

Chaplin biographer Joyce Milton saw in Work not a Socialist manifesto, but a comment on Chaplin’s more immediate problems with his own employer: ‘Work may well have owed something to Chaplin’s exposure to Socialist ideas, but the protest was also highly personal. He had hitched himself to the rickety cart of the Essanay Film Manufacturing Company, hauling its do-nothing partner, George Spoor, up the steep slope of profitability.’ It’s a over-stretched, over-burdened metaphor, but there may have been something in the idea.

Whether this commentary on his working conditions hit home, or it was just co-incidental, Chaplin did get to renegotiate his contract with Essanay in June 1915. The new deal—for a total of 10 more films before the end of the contract on 1 January 1916—started with Work. This suggested a new film would be required every three weeks, a rate of production Chaplin must’ve known he was unlikely to sustain, given his developing working habits. Each film would bring Chaplin an additional $10,000 bonus on top of his weekly salary, putting him on a par (bonus-wise, not in terms of salary) with Mary Pickford. The deal also involved the relocation of the Chaplin film unit to the Majestic Studios on Fairfax Avenue in Los Angeles, under Chaplin ally Jesse Robbins supervision.

Following the signing of the new contract, Chaplin embarked upon an even more ambitious feature film project to be called Life. Intended as no less than the portrait of a city’s slum life, it was clearly inspired by the work of D. W. Griffith, which Chaplin had taken to studying. He managed to shoot some flophouse footage before Essanay’s George Spoor ordered their star comic to stop work on that film and re-start production on more two-reel shorts immediately. Chaplin attempted to work some of the material into a later three-reel film called Police, but the footage was missing from the released version, which came out in 1916 after the comic had left the studio. Chaplin assumed the footage intended for Life must have been destroyed by Essanay. He was surprised, therefore, when it turned up two years later in an unauthorized Chaplin comedy released by Essanay called Triple Trouble in 1918. [There will be more on Police, Triple Trouble and the scenes from Life in two Essanay Extra Essays in the Chaplin: Film by Film 2015 eBook available in December]

Chaplin2015Work2To a lesser extent than in The Tramp, Chaplin maintains the newly-developed romantic (rather than plain lustful) side of the Tramp in his scenes in Work with Edna Purviance as the maid. They share an intimate moment, after much flirting throughout the action, in a close two-shot as he regales her with chatter while picking at his nails with a trowel and other decorating tools, a habit that clearly doesn’t endear him to her given her expression. He even covers her bare arms with his dirty hand prints. Romance is once more abandoned, as the maid returns to her duties and there is nothing left but for the melancholy Tramp to reluctantly go back to his work. The scene stands out amid the generally better organized knockabout farce of the rest of the short and indicates Chaplin’s growing interest in depicting interesting characters moments in a bit more depth.

John McCabe pointed out a recurring and developing aspect of Chaplin’s Tramp character. In opposition to both his boss and the lady of the house, the Tramp ‘remains imperturbable. This is a favourite Chaplin device: creating the tensions of anger around him while he stays placid in the eye of the storm. … Like any great actor, Chaplin listens to his fellow actors when they speak; he does not merely wait for his cue as so many actors do. He believes in the reality of Charlie; he plays Charlie on Charlie’s terms. … Charlie believes himself to be real and so he convinces us.’

Chaplin had often expressed his hope, mainly to half-brother Sydney, that he could make money quite quickly in films and then quit the picture business in short order. He had other interests he’d rather be pursuing professionally, especially music. The plethora of Tramp-inspired songs, such as ‘Those Charlie Chaplin Feet’ and ‘The Chaplin Strut’ served to irritate the would-be composer. His rage was partially assuaged by a public appearance in July 1915 at the Shrine Civic Auditorium in Los Angeles where he conducted the orchestra in their playing of one of his own original compositions. In future, he’d combine his musical ambitions and his film archive in a series of re-scored re-issues, but for the moment, the film business had a firm grip on Charlie Chaplin.

Trivia: During the making of Work, Chaplin injured his wrist, an accident that rapidly became exaggerated in the re-telling to the extent that it was rumoured he’d actually been killed engaged in a dangerous stunt: his almost two month absence from the screen no doubt reinforced this rumour.

The Contemporary View: Chaplin didn’t always score positive reviews, even for his better films. ‘Chaplin has found the public will stand for his picture comedy of the worst kind, and he is giving them the worst kind … [Work] is the usual Chaplin work of late, mussy, messy, and dirty.’—Sime Silverman, Variety, June 2015.

Slapstick: Following the cart sequence, the Tramp causes chaos at the household using every tool of the decorators trade to aid him. Entering the house, he is so burdened with assorted ladders, ropes, sheets, buckets and brushes, it is almost impossible to see him under it all. Everything is dumped on the floor of the hallway as he trips on the head of a bearskin rug. A plank proves to be a tricky prop in the Tramp’s hands—he also ends up as a support for the same plank as his boss sits on it, a role soon abandoned when Edna enters. After lighting the stove, the Tramp has his usual trouble with a swing door and takes his frustration out on the aforementioned bearskin rug. There’s much literal mucking about as the Tramp helps his boss out when a bucket of paint falls on his head (caused by the careless Tramp in the first place). The Tramp has clearly never hung wallpaper before (is this his first day on the job?). Leo White’s ‘French count’ arrives to cause more havoc, before a faulty stove brings the action to an explosive climax.

Verdict: Good slapstick structure and character stuff, but still lacking depth on the Tramp himself, 3/5

Next: A Woman (12 July 1915)

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His Regeneration (7 May 1915)


Released: 7 May 1915, Essanay

Director: G. M. Anderson

Writer: Charlie Chaplin

Duration: approx. 15 mins.

With: G. M. ‘Broncho Billy’ Anderson, Marguerite Clayton, Lee Willard, Hazel Applegate, Charlie Chaplin, Lloyd Bacon, Snub Pollard

Story: A burglar is persuaded to change his ways after he breaks into the home of a society woman who’d earlier shown him some kindness.

Production: Included here for the sake of completeness, His Regeneration is not really a Chaplin short at all. It is, instead, a ‘Broncho Billy’ Anderson film in which Chaplin makes a brief cameo, just as Anderson did earlier in Chaplin’s The Champion. Gilbert Anderson—known as Billy—was, of course, one of the two co-founders of Essanay studios alongside George Spoor.

Chaplin’s appearance is confined to the opening sequence in the dance hall which serves to set up the dramatic dilemma for Anderson’s leading character. This features some basic Chaplin fun as he attempts to chat up a woman, chats with the house band, and then is caught up in a whirling dervish of dancing couples (influencing future scenes featuring Chaplin in such films as Modern Times, The Gold Rush, and The Immigrant).

As well as appearing briefly in the film (and his appearance would no doubt have been recognised and cheered as an unexpected surprise by filmgoers in 1915, even though he is credited as appearing in this short at the beginning where Anderson is noted as having been ‘slightly assisted’ by Chaplin!), Charlie Chaplin is also credited as having written the scenario. This is interesting, as apart from his own clowning business, this is a straight-forward drama, the first time Chaplin had written anything like this for the screen. It shows his continuing evolving interest in moving away from basic fall-about comedy into other areas of cinematic expression. His films from here on would continue to feature ever more developed dramatic scenarios as well as comic moments.

It has been speculated (by, among others, The Chaplin Encyclopedia author Glenn Mitchell) that the relationship between Anderson and Chaplin was so good (at least until he quit Essanay) that Chaplin appeared in a variety of now forgotten Essanay/Anderson movies and essentially acted as an associate producer in Anderson’s California-based unit. That may go some way to explain the freedom Chaplin was given in moving his productions back to Los Angeles for his next released short, Work.

Of course, Chaplin had essentially made several ‘guest appearances’ in the work of others more established as film comics during his year at Keystone in 1914, including alongside Fatty Arbuckle in The Knockout. Later he would turn up in Douglas Fairbanks’ 75-minute feature film The Nut (1921)—at the time the pair were establishing United Aritists with Mary Pickford and D.W. Griffith—as, of all things, a Chaplin impersonator, whose Tramp costume is—according to The Chaplin Encyclopedia—reportedly slightly wrong and comic business is curiously exaggerated. I say ‘reportedly’ because biographer Jeffrey Vance doubts Chaplin’s inclusion at all: ‘It is clearly a Chaplin imitator, not Chaplin himself, who appears briefly in the party sequence wearing the Tramp costume’ (Check out The Faux Charlot web site for a clip). Chaplin also appears in what is basically a Pickford home movie, Nice and Friendly, also shot in 1921. Furthermore, there is a clip of Chaplin behind the camera directing from the feature film Souls for Sale (1923, previously lost the incomplete film has been screened on TCM in the US and is available on DVD). Roger Ebert noted that producer Samuel Goldwyn ‘must have called in a lot of favours, because there are cameo roles showing Charles Chaplin directing a scene while puffing furiously on a cigarette, Erich von Stroheim allegedly working on Greed, and such other stars as Barbara La Marr, Jean Hersholt, Chester Conklin, and Claire Windsor.’ That same year Chaplin contributed to James Cruze’s Hollywood. He appears as himself, not his Tramp character, in King Vidor’s Show People (1928) alongside Marion Davies, whose autograph he requests.

Trivia: His Regeneration would be one of the influences on the later Chaplin short Police (1916), the last he’d produce for Essanay.

The Contemporary View: ‘Even in the short time at his disposal, Chaplin assists the tale to make a very lively commencement, which is as novel in a production of this kind as it is pleasant.’—Bioscope 1915.

Slapstick: Appearing as his Tramp character, Chaplin accidentally holds hands with a man in the dance hall queue before getting to (briefly) chat up the true object of his affections. The waiter soon shifts the Tramp away from the band, but he’s quickly back amid the dancing crowds, before vanishing from the film altogether!

Verdict: One for completists, but worth checking out, 2/5

Next: Work (21 June 1915)

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By The Sea (29 April 1915)


Released: 29 April 1915, Essanay

Director: Charles Chaplin

Writer: Charles Chaplin

Duration: approx. 14 mins (one reel)

With: Edna Purviance, Bud Jamison, Billy Armstrong, Margie Reiger, Paddy McGuire, Snub Pollard

Story: A day out at the beach proves eventful for the Tramp: two women catch his romantic eye, much to their annoyance—and that of their husbands!

Production: The first film Chaplin made upon his return to Los Angeles, By The Sea was essentially another ‘quickie’ made to make up for time invested in the making of The Tramp. As with several of Chaplin’s early Essanay shorts, this one recalls several of his Keystone efforts produced with a little more polish, and at just one reel it certainly doesn’t outstay its welcome. Where The Tramp had revealed new depths to Chaplin’s screen character with the addition of pathos, By The Sea is an unashamed knockabout comedy that reinforced his status as a master of silent pantomime: it would, however, be his final single reeler as he’d outgrown the format’s limitations.

‘By The Sea has all the appearance of having been shot in a day,’ wrote Chaplin’s biographer David Robinson, reinforcing the idea that for this rapidly produced movie Chaplin had fallen back upon Mack Sennett’s tried-and-tested Keystone approach to churning them out. ‘It’s the kind of scenario which would equally have served the commedia dell’arte or Keystone—a series of slapstick and situation variations skilfully managed within the restrictions of only nine camera set-ups,’ concluded Robinson. Glenn Mitchell, in The Chaplin Encyclopedia, described By The Sea as essentially ‘a park comedy without the trees … the impression is of an interim effort designed to maintain the public attention between the more elaborate two-reel subjects’.

Another justification for By The Sea was the need to produce a film while preparation work was being made for the Essanay Chaplin unit to move into the Bradbury Mansion, where the next film, Work, would be shot. The bulk of the filming for By The Sea took place along Ocean Front Walk and around the Abbott Kinney Pier in Santa Monica—the pier as seen in the short was destroyed by fire in 1920, so the film captured it before it was completely rebuilt in 1921. The original pier featured a roller coaster dubbed Race Thru the Clouds which was also seen in the opening scenes of the very first Chaplin short released, Kid Auto Races at Venice. The use of this location, therefore, made a somewhat fitting return to ‘home’ turf for Charlie Chaplin in 1915.

The scenes on the beach of Billy Armstrong mock-strangling Chaplin’s Tramp were filmed near the ‘Venice Plunge’, the largest saltwater bathhouse on the West coast, with the bulk of the Abbott Kinney Pier visible in the background. Further historic sights preserved in this short include the Venice Dance Pavilion, visible behind shots of Edna Purviance, along with the Ship Cafe Restaurant and the 1913 Waldorf Hotel (which still stands today) where Chaplin loses his hat in the wind. The Dance Pavilion, one of the largest dance halls on the Pacific coast, opened in June 1906 with 15,000 square foot of floorspace, more than enough to accommodate up to 800 dancers at any one time. Chaplin also flirts with Edna in Palisades Park in Santa Monica.

At the short’s opening when the Tramp treats himself to a tasty banana—only to slip on the discarded peel minutes later—he’s standing outside the Venice Diamond Cafe, part of the extensive buildings at the entrance to the pier complex. Here tourists could pick-up the so-called ‘Balloon Route’ (as on a map the route outlined a rough balloon shape) railroad ride through downtown Los Angeles to Hollywood and out to the beaches at Santa Monica and Redondo. A round trip cost $1.

While some of the Ocean Front buildings remain today, the pier featured heavily in By The Sea closed down in 1947 before burning down once again shortly thereafter. This area also appeared in Harold Lloyd’s Number Please (1920) and Buster Keaton’s The Cameraman (1928), for those hoping to see more of it. For the changing locations of many of Chaplin’s film, John Bengtson’s brilliantly illustrated book Silent Traces: Discovering Early Hollywood Through the Films of Charlie Chaplin is indispensable and is the result of much dedicated personal detective work on behalf of the author.

Featured briefly in By The Sea, as the ice cream seller, is Snub Pollard. Harry ‘Snub’ Pollard had been born in Melbourne, Australia in 1889 as Harold Fraser. Later recognised through his trademark large drooping moustache, it is possible to spot him in By The Sea (sans moustache) and in several later Chaplin shorts, including His Regeneration (a Billy Anderson short in which Chaplin only makes a cameo), Police (1915) and Triple Trouble (1915). While working at Essanay, Pollard met Hal Roach, who was also based there. ‘Snub’ would hit his stride in the 1920s in the early Harold Lloyd shorts before Roach—who’d set up himself as a producer by then—gave him his own solo series. Perhaps best known is 1923’s It’s A Gift (not to be confused with the W.C. Fields film of the same title) in which he plays a crazy inventor. Pollard would go on to enjoy a decent if not spectacular career, appearing for the Weiss Brothers in the mid-1920s in a series of knockoff Laurel and Hardy style shorts. He later played small roles in talkies, including many Westerns, Hollywood Cavalcade (1939), Miracle on 34th Street (1937) and in Man of a Thousand Faces (1957). Somewhat fittingly, his final film role was a silent part in Twist Around the Clock, made in 1962—he died that same year, aged 72.

Trivia: Chaplin’s increasing fame made it difficult for him to work extensively on location or in public places, as he does for By The Sea. Through watching the film very carefully, it is possible to spot the reflection of a group of assembled curious onlookers in a store window, while behind Chaplin and Armstrong’s strenuous thesping on the beach can be seen a sole sunbather ignoring the crew of comedians, determine they won’t ruin his day out.

The Contemporary View: ‘More irresistible absurdities by the inimitable Charles [Chaplin] … [his] humour needs neither description nor recommendation.’—Bioscope 1915.

Slapstick: Banana peel ahoy—probably the first time Chaplin’s used that hackneyed gag. Hat’s off—thank goodness for those tangled tethers. Beach bums Billy and Charlie bounce around a beachfront bench—at least all that sand makes for a soft landing every time Billy knocks Charlie down. Searching for fleas in Billy’s hair, the Tramp pre-figures a classic routine used in Chaplin’s later Limelight. Enter Edna, exit the Tramp in pursuit. Snub wants paying for the ice cream, but neither of the beach bums seems to have any liquid assets, other than the ice cream they smear on each other’s faces, then Snub’s, then a passer-by’s. While the husbands go at it, the Tramp re-encounters Edna and is even more smitten, at least until her husband returns. The Tramp and the two couples reunite on the beach for a tumbling finale.

Verdict: An entertaining—if inconsequential—trifle with some historic sights, 2/5

Next: His Regeneration (7 May 1915)

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A Jitney Elopement (1 April 1915)


Released: 1 April 1915, Essanay

Director: Charles Chaplin

Writer: Charles Chaplin

Duration: approx. 26 mins

With: Edna Purviance, Bud Jamison, Leo White, Lloyd Bacon, Ernest Van Pelt

Story: As her father wants Edna to marry a wealth count, the Tramp impersonates the Count de Lime, until the real thing turns up to spoil things. Later, the Tramp takes Edna for a ride in his car, only for her father, the Count and the cops to set off in pursuit…

Production: By the time he came to make A Jitney Elopement and, especially, his next short The Tramp, Charlie Chaplin had essentially harnessed the Essanay studio machine to his own developing filmmaking needs. His fifth and sixth films released by the studio would signal a new direction and a new maturity in his filmmaking alongside a further evolution for the Tramp. They would also be the last films he produced for Essanay at the Niles studio, preferring to relocate once more to Los Angeles in Southern California.

This was the first film that would focus on developing a romance between the characters played by Chaplin and Edna Purviance (reflecting their off-screen real lives), an area that many of the subsequent films would build further upon. The whole premise of the short develops from the Tramp’s attempts to save Edna from the arranged marriage her father (Ernest Van Pelt) has contracted with Leo White’s Count.

With the Tramp impersonating a member of the aristocracy for the purposes of romance, A Jitney Elopement recalls Chaplin’s Keystone effort, Caught in a Cabaret. The difference between this and his other loose Keystone remakes that preceded it is that A Jitney Elopement uses the basic scenario but develops it far beyond anything he ever achieved at Keystone or even in his first hesitant films produced at Essanay.

The social comedy of the first reel sees Edna’s distraught would-be bride tossing a note explaining her predicament to Chaplin’s Tramp. Catching the note, Charlie takes on the guise of the Count, works his way into the household and is unwittingly wined-and-dined by the bride’s father. Only the arrival of the genuine count puts an end to the Tramp’s domestic charade. Re-encountering the trio in the park, the Tramp rescuses the bride and flees in the Count’s car, closely pursued by the cops.

While A Jitney Elopement—at least in its final section—might be regarded as an ‘action comedy’ or ‘thrill film’, thanks to the spectacular car chase, the opening section features some subtle but germane social comedy. The dinner scene sees the Tramp play the Count, and while his host (the father of his bride-to-be) believes him to be of the upper classes, he overlooks the several ‘social gaffes’ (as Peter Ackroyd dubs them) the Tramp commits. The arrival of the real count causes Ernest Van Pelt’s indulgent host to react against what the Tramp has been doing: it’s as if Chaplin is saying that class excuses everything. As long as his interloper was believed to be of the same class as his host, his actions were regarded as eccentricities. When he’s ‘unmasked’, however, such behaviour in a member of the lower classes (a tramp, indeed!) becomes completely unacceptable. Chaplin’s films always had a streak of social comment running through them, even in the more knockabout Keystone days. From here forward (and really beginning with his next short, The Tramp), Chaplin went out of his way to include such content in his art.

Ernest Van Pelt, playing Edna’s father in A Jitney Elopement, was the latest addition to the Chaplin Essanay repertory company. Born in 1883 in Kansas, Van Pelt was also an assistant director who worked with Chaplin on several shorts including In The Park (1915), in which he also played the sausage seller; Burlesque on Carmen (1916); and Police (1916). He’d also worked with Billy Anderson on a variety of his Broncho Billy shorts, and his brother Homer was also in the film business as a cameraman. Van Pelt died in 1961, aged 78.

Chaplin2015AJitneyElopement3As mentioned, A Jitney Elopement features a skilfully realised car chase, the kind of ‘speed’ comedy later more associated with Harold Lloyd primarily. A ‘jitney’, as used here and in several other silent comedy film titles, was the general name for a type of shared taxi service common prior to the 1920s in Los Angeles, with the word drawn from a slang nickname for a nickel, the cost of a ride. It came to denote any form of jalopy or old vehicle, in common with other slang phrases such as ‘flivver’ and ‘Tin Lizzie’, the latter referring specifically to a Model T Ford. Shot on location in San Francisco, the unusual car chase pre-dated Steve McQueen’s acclaimed Bullitt (1968) sequence by some six decades.

Chaplin2015AJitneyElopement4The second reel (actually, really just the final five minutes or so) features the material shot in and around San Francisco’s Golden Gate Park, including shots of the dramatic still-extant (and restored) Murphy Windmill in the park’s southwest corner. This was the second of the area’s pair of windmills, built in 1905, and the working vanes seen in A Jitney Elopement were removed (or, in some accounts, simply fell off) during the 1940s. The windmill was a gift to the city from banker Samuel G. Murphy, and it was originally used to pump up to 40,000 gallons of water each day for irrigation of the park, freeing the city from costly private water suppliers. Electric pumps soon replaced this mechanism and the windmill fell into disrepair in the years after the Second World War. A long campaign for its restoration finally achieved success in 2012.

The car chase takes in shots along Ocean Beach and the Great Highway (notably unpaved back then—the three storey house visible in several shots is still standing and occupied today), before defying the laws of space and time, but using the magic of film editing, continuing in the Mission District by racing along Folsom Street past ‘Joe Holle Bicycles’. The chase ends with the cop’s car shunted off a pier and into the bay, shot at Fisherman’s Wharf with the US Customs House visible in the background.

Amid the action, Chaplin never forgets that it is character that counts. The opening of the film sees the Tramp holding a flower, suggesting the character’s softer and more emotional or caring side. This would be an image that Chaplin would repeat and develop as his filmmaking became more sophisticated, with the contrast between the freshness and vitality of a flower with the broken down aspect of the Tramp becoming one of the filmmaker’s favourite juxtapositions. Notice, also, in this sequence, Chaplin’s use, as director, of an iris out effect (a circular transition effect achieved in the film developing lab—a facility which Essanay lacked prior to Chaplin’s arrival) to emphasise the detail of the flower. Cinematic technique or clever direction or camerawork was never central to Chaplin’s comedy or Rollie Tothero’s cinematography, but they would develop the ‘iris out’ as a signature finale to many of their shorts beginning with The Tramp.

Chaplin’s increasing popularity during the first half of 1915 was further evident through the bizarre phenomenon of the Chaplin songs and dances. Being a silent comedian, Chaplin himself was not known for his singing (not until Modern Times, 1936, at any rate) and while sometimes balletic in his slapstick, dancing was not his forte either. That made it all the more strange that worldwide there should be a craze for Charlie Chaplin-inspired songs and dances.

In his vaudeville revue comedian Lupino Lane sang and performed ‘That Chaplin Walk’, whose lyrics were quoted by Chaplin biographer David Robinson:

Since Charlie Chaplin became all the craze
Everybody copies his funny old ways
They copy his hat and the curl of his hair
His moustache is something you cannot compare
They copy the way he makes love to the girls
His method really is a treat
There’s one thing ’bout Charlie they never will get
And that is the shoes on his feet, and…


It doesn’t matter everywhere you go
Watch ’em coming out of any cinema show
Shuffling along, They’re acting like a rabbit
When you’ve seen Charlie Chaplin, you can’t help but get the habit
First they stumble over both their feet
Swing their sticks and look up and down the street
Fathers, mothers, sisters, brothers
All your wife’s relations and half a dozen others
In London, Paris and New York
Everybody does that Charlie Chaplin walk.

Chaplin2015AJitneyElopement5Lupino Lane was an English actor and theatre manager born in 1892 (as William Henry George Lupino) who started his performing life while still a child, billed as ‘The Little Nipper’. He worked on stage for years, before graduating to making films during 1915 in Britain. By the 1920s he was in Hollywood and worked with Roscoe ‘Fatty’ Arbuckle (as had Chaplin). His biggest success, though, came with the 1937 stage musical Me and My Girl, which popularised another ‘walk’-based song, The Lambeth Walk. Perhaps the most famous member of the theatrical Lupino family was Lupino Lane’s niece, Ida Lupino, an actress and director who made her own career in Hollywood from the 1940s and 1970s in film and television.

‘That Chaplin Walk’ was just one of many Chaplin-inspired songs and dances that became popular as his fame spread throughout 1915. There was ‘The Charlie Chaplin Glide’, ‘Those Charlie Chaplin Feet’, the French ‘Charlot One-Step’ and the song ‘The Funniest Man in Pictures’, the lyrics of which (by Marguerite Kendall) included the optimistic lines ‘He tips his hat and twirls his cane/His moustache drives the girls insane’.

The plethora of Chaplin products was enough to suggest to Chaplin’s half-brother Sydney that the Chaplins themselves should be benefitting from Charlie’s fame, not these interlopers. By 1915, Sydney’s own contract at Keystone had expired, so he joined his increasingly famous brother in setting up the Charles Chaplin Music Company and the Charles Chaplin Advertising Service and devoted himself full time to managing his brother’s business affairs. Always wary of those who might exploit him, Chaplin was happy to have a trusted family member looking after his interests.

Chaplin2015AJitneyElopement6One exploitation of Chaplin’s image began in 1915, but wouldn’t really catch on for another couple of years. The Chaplins agreed for Essanay to produce a Charlie Chaplin animated cartoon as an instalment in their ongoing ‘Dreamy Dud Draws…’ series. Animator Wallace Carlson was behind ‘Dreamy Dud Draws Charlie Chaplin’ (AKA ‘Dreamy Dud Sees Charlie Chaplin’, released 18 August 1915), in which little lad Dud’s daydreams get him into all sorts of trouble. Drawing heavily on the Little Nemo series, the cartoon has Dud and his dog watching a Chaplin short in a cinema. The animated Tramp falls foul of a mule, a policeman, and a lamppost. The film ends with Dud’s father waking him up from yet another dream… Moving Picture World noted: ‘Wallace A. Carlson has reproduced the moving picture comedian in a very lifelike manner, although some of the feats that Charlie performs in this half-reel cartoon would prove rather difficult for the actor himself.’ The short was made at Essanay’s Chicago studio, where Chaplin had filmed his Essanay debut, His New Job.

While Chaplin could be seen in newspaper cartoon strips, the animated cartoon idea didn’t take off—at least not yet. Further animated Chaplin cartoons would follow in 1916, produced by Pat Sullivan and Otto Mesmer (creators of Felix the Cat). [The animated Chaplin image above is from Sullivan’s later At The Beach].

Trivia: Chaplin’s drawing upon his comedy past stretched far back beyond Keystone for one scene in A Jitney Elopement. When attempting to help himself to a bread loaf, the Tramp slices the loaf in a single long spiral cut, so producing a concertina by the time he’s finished. The gag harked back to Chaplin’s stage days in vaudeville and had—according to David Robinson—been part of Chaplin’s performance when Alf Reeves saw him on stage before recruiting him for the movies.

The Contemporary View: ‘It demonstrates the extraordinary ability of Mr. Chaplin to manufacture [two reels] of lively, knockabout comedy on a plot which is practically threadbare. He is admittedly a wonderful bag of tricks.’—The Cinema (1915).

Slapstick: The Tramp’s enthusiasm for pepper during the soup course causes a mass outbreak of sneezing. His cup of tea proves to be hot stuff… The discovery of the Tramp’s true identity sees him thrown out on his ear—or, rather, by his ear, with a kick up the backside to boot! The Tramp’s self-rolled cigarette disintegrates in his mouth, while the Count’s Top Hat makes for a handy ashtray. Their canes also prove to be effective duelling weapons. The Tramp celebrates vanquishing the Count by rolling his hat along his arm… until the cops arrive. An overenthusiastic embrace of Edna sees the pair take a tumble over a tree branch, twice. Battling with Edna’s father sees the Tramp make further acquaintance with that same branch. Several heel skids by the Tramp lead into the car chase, but only after the Tramp figures out how to start the car. An automotive ballet follows, ending in a splash down and a shy kiss.

Verdict: A film of two halves, with the spectacular car chase making up for the formulaic opening, 3/5

Next: The Tramp (11 April 1915)

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